Assam, a state of India, is one of the richest regions of biodiversity in the world. The wide varieties of species of fauna and flora are found in the diverse ecosystem of Assam. There are 5 nos. of National Parks, 18 nos. of wildlife sanctuaries, 4 nos. of Tiger Projects, 5 nos. of Elephant Reserves, 2 nos. of Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar site in Assam protect the natural environment of Assam. The most notable data on 18 nos. of Wildlife Sanctuaries of Assam are given below.
Notes on 18 Nos. of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Assam, India
1. Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary (গৰমপানী অভয়াৰণ্য) is a 6.05-sq.km. (2.34 sq mi) wildlife sanctuary located in Karbi Anglong district, Assam, India. It is 25 km (16 mi) from Golaghat District. The area was declared as a Wildlife sanctuary in 2003. The Wildlife Sanctuary has hot spring water sources and scenic waterfalls. Prominent primates, hoolock gibbons and golden langurs live there. Elephants, tiger, birds, reptiles, amphibians, etc. are common dweller in this sanctuary. Coordinates of Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary is 26.42°N, 93.725°E.
2. Pani Dihing Wildlife Sanctuary (পানী দিহিং অভয়াৰণ্য) is 33.93 sq.km. (13.10 sq mi) wildlife sanctuary located in Sivasagar district, Assam, India. It is 22 km (14 mi) away from Sivasagar town. This protected area was established as a Bird Sanctuary in August 1999 by the Government of Assam. It is observed over 267 species of birds, 70 rare migratory species of birds. Coordinates of Pani Dihing Wildlife Sanctuary is 27°7′19″N, 94°35′47″E.
3. Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary (সোনাই ৰূপাই অভয়াৰণ্য) covers an area of 175 sq.km. The wildlife sanctuary located in the district Sonitpur, Assam, India. The sanctuary spreads all the way along the foothills of the Great Himalayan range. It declared as wildlife sanctuary in the year 1998. There are various species of mammals like tiger, lesser cats, elephant, gaur, Wild boar, pygmy hog, swamp deer, barking deer, etc., birds like white winged wood duck, hornbill, pelican, and migratory birds, etc., reptiles like python, Russell’s viper, etc., in this sanctuary. Coordinates of Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary is 26.9188° N, 92.3419° E.
4. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary (বৰনদী অভয়াৰণ্য) covers an area of 26.22 sq.km. (10.12 sq mi). The wildlife sanctuary situated on the foothills of Himalayas bordering Bhutan in the north and in Udalguri district & Baksa District of Assam, India. This sanctuary is named after the river Bornadi which flows on its western border. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary declared a Reserve Forest in 1942, it elevated to a wildlife Sanctuary in 1980. Coordinates of Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is 26°48′21″N, 91°44′25″E. Mammals like pygmy hog, golden langur, clouded leopard, hoolock gibbon, birds like white-winged wood duck, hornbill, kingfisher, woodpecker, swam patridge and some migratory birds are inhabitants.
5. Bura Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary (বুঢ়া চাপৰি অভয়াৰণ্য) covers an area of 44.06 Sq.km. The sanctuary is located on the south bank of the Brahmaputra River in Sonitpur district of Assam, India. The area was declared a reserved forest in 1974, it became a sanctuary in 1995. Coordinates of Bura Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary is 26°51′57″N 92°50′53″E. Mammals like one horned Indian rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, wild buffalo, hog deer, wild pigs, etc., birds like Bengal florican, black-necked stork, mallard, open bill stork, teal, whistling duck and many others species are shown there.
6. Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary (আমচাং অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in the eastern fringe of Guwahati city of Kamrup Metropolitan District, Assam, India. It is spreading in an area of 78.64 sq. kms. Amchang was declared as a wildlife sanctuary on 19th June, 2004 by the government of Assam. Some rare and endangered birds and animals such as the Chinese pangolin and Assamese Macaque live here. Coordinates of Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is 26.1842° N, 91.8621° E.
7. Hoollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (হোলোঙাপাৰ গিবন অভয়াৰণ্য) covers an area of 20.986 Sq.km. The sanctuary is located in Jorhat district of Assam, India. The area was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1997. It was named after its dominant tree species, Hollong or Dipterocarpus macrocarpus Vesque. The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary contains India’s only gibbons – Hoolock gibbons, and Northeastern India’s only nocturnal primate – the Bengal slow loris. Other primates are seen the stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides), northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina), Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis assamensis), rhrsus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus). Some mammals like Indian elephants, tigers (Panthera tigris), leopards (Panthera pardus), jungle cats (Felis chaus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), three types of civet, four types of squirrel are also seen. At least 219 species of bird and several types of snake are known to live in the park. The species of trees found in this sanctuary are Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus), Sam (Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.), Amari (Amoora wallichii King), Sopas (Michelia spp.),Bhelu (Tetrameles nudiflora R.Br.), Udal ((Sterculia villosa Roxb.) and Hingori (Castanopsis spp.), Nahar (Mesua ferrea L.) Bandordima (Dysoxylum procerum Hiern), Dhuna (Canarium strictum Roxb.), Bhomora (Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.), Ful Gomari (Gmelina sp.) Bonbogri (Pterospermum lanceifolium Roxb.), Morhal (Vatica lanceaefolia Bl.), Selleng (Sapium baccatum Roxb.), Sassi (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), and Otenga (Dillenia indica L.), etc. Coordinates of Hoollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary is 26.716667°N, 94.383333°E.
8. Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary (দিহিং পাটকাই অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts of Assam in India and covers an area of 111.19 km2 (42.93 sq mi) rainforest. It was declared as sanctuary on 13 June 2004. This sanctuary consists of three parts: Jeypore, upper Dihing River and Dirok rainforest. Dehing Patkai is the only rainforest in Assam.
9. Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary (লাওখোৱা অভয়াৰণ্য) covers an area of 70.13 sq.km. It is located on the south bank of the Brahmaputra River in Nagaon district, Assam in India. This wildlife sanctuary was upgraded to a wildlife sanctuary in 1979.
10. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary (পবিতৰা অভয়াৰণ্য) covers 38.85 sq.km.The wildlife sanctuary is situated on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra in Morigaon district in Assam, India. It was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1987.
11. Chakrashila Willife Sanctuary (চক্ৰশিলা অভয়াৰণ্য) is situated at Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts of Assam, India. The sanctuary covers an area of 45.568 sq.km. On 14 July 1994, Government of Assam upgraded the area to wildlife sanctuary. It is famous for the golden langur and is the second protected habitat for golden langur in India.
12. Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary (নামবৰ অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in Karbi Anglong district of Assam in India. This wildlifesanctuary covers an area of 37 km2. The area was declared as a wildlife sanctuary on 27 July 2000.
13. East Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary (পূব কাৰ্বি আংলং অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in Karbi Anglong district, Assam state of India. It covers an area of 221.81 sq.km. The forest area was declared a wildlife sanctuary on 27 July 2000 by the Assam State Government.
14. Bherjan-Borajan-Padumoni Wildlife Sanctuary (ভেৰাজান-বৰাজান-পদুমণি অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in Tinsukia district of Assam in India covering 7.22 sq.km. This wildlife sanctuary is spread across three blocks located in Tinsukia district of Upper Assam which consist of three separate forests, namely Bherjan, Borajan and Padumoni. The area was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in 1999.
15. Borail Wildlife Sanctuary (বৰাইল অভয়াৰণ্য) is located in Cachar and Dima Hasao districts of Assam, India. It spreads over 326.24 sq.km. The area was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in June 2004. The sanctuary is located between latitude 24°58’- 25°50’ N and longitude 92°50’-92°52’E.
16. Bordoibam Bilmukh Bird sanctuary (বৰদৈবাম বিলমুখ পখী অভয়াৰণ্য) is a large freshwater lake that was created during the great earthquake of 1950. It was part of the River Subansiri, which now flows 7 km away. Dhemaji is an imminent sanctuary shared between the districts of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji of Assam. Assam government declared Bordoibam Bilmukh riparian wetland as a Bird Sanctuary in the year 1996. The sanctuary covers an area of 11.25sq.km. About 58 species of fishes, 181 species of birds are observed in the sanctuary.
17. Deepor Beel Wildlife Sanctuary (দীপৰ বিল অভয়াৰণ্য) is a fresh water lake situated to the south-west of Guwahati city in Kamrup Metropolitan district in Assam state of India covers an area of 4.14sq.km. The beel was declared as a Bird Sanctuary by Assam Government in 1989. In November 2002, it was listed as a Ramsar site due to its rich wetland biodiversity. Again, considering the varieties of bird species found in the beel, Birdlife International has also declared Deepor Bil as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
18. Marat Longri Wildlife Sanctuary মাৰাত লংৰি অভয়াৰণ্য is located in Karbi Anglong District of Assam State in India. It covers 451.00 sq.km. and was declared a wildlife sanctuary in April 2003, is an important component of Dhansiri-Lumding elephant reserve.